Auditory-guided continuous delayed non-matching-to-sample task. A: Sequence of events within a single continuous trial and delay. Each trial consisted of a 15 s tone presentation and a 3 s response-opportunity period following a 5 s delay period. The response-opportunity period started 1 s after the onset of the tone presentation of each trial. The upper bold lines represent sample and test periods. B: Typical sequence of trials, delays and responses within a session. C: In a trial in which a non-match tone is presented, the tone differs from that presented in the previous trial; rats poke their nose into a hole to obtain a reward. In a trial in which a match tone is presented, the same tone is repeated; rats do not poke their nose into the hole. Even when rats poke their nose on match trials, they receive no reward. Consequently, rats learn not to poke their nose in match trials. D-I: Examples of a sequence with sample, delay, and test periods for stimulus perception (D), stimulus retention (E), motor selection (F), stimulus comparison (G), correct-error comparison (H), and particular-stimulus comparison (I). Each shaded box shows the interval for the decoder. Each arrow on the right side presents an example vector to one of the labels being classified.