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Table 1 Statistical comparison between the clk-mov curves of the hand and foot.

From: Synchrony of hand-foot coupled movements: is it attained by mutual feedback entrainment or by independent linkage of each limb to a common rhythm generator?

  segment coupled with coupling main effect frequency main effect interaction
isodirectional association hand unloaded alone    
   foot unloaded F(2,18) = 0.32 F(8,72) = 1.25 F(16,144) = 1.20
   foot loaded p = 0.732 p = 0.284 p = 0.274
  foot unloaded alone    
   hand unloaded F(2,18) = 1.80 F(8,72) = 1.98 F(16,144) = 1.19
   hand loaded p = 0.194 p = 0.060 p = 0.278
  hand loaded alone F(1,9) = 1.61 F(8,72) = 3.02 F(8,72) = 1.02
   foot unloaded p = 0.236 p < 0.0055* p = 0.426
  foot loaded alone F(1,9) = 2.66 F(8,72) = 7.13 F(8,72) = 0.49
   hand unloaded p = 0.137 p < 0.000001* p = 0.856
antidirectional association hand unloaded alone    
   foot unloaded F(2,18) = 0.16 F(5,45) = 1.94 F(10,90) = 0.68
   foot loaded p = 0.854 p = 0.105 p = 0.739
  foot unloaded alone    
   hand unloaded F(2,18) = 2.17 F(5,45) = 1.04 F(10,90) = 0.96
   hand loaded p = 0.143 p = 0.406 p = 0.481
  hand loaded alone F(1,9) = 1.71 F(5,45) = 11.03 F(5,45) = 1.06
   foot unloaded p = 0.224 p = 0.000001* p = 0.394
  foot loaded alone F(1,9) = 1.93 F(5,45) = 8.06 F(5,45) = 1.33
   hand unloaded p = 0.198 p = 0.00002* p = 0.270
  1. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA, 2 or 3 coupling modalities × 9 frequencies. Direction of movement association is indicated in col.1, moving segment in col.2 and coupling modality in col.3. Significant effects marked by asterisk. In all the configurations examined, the ANOVA test failed to reveal any significant effect of coupling on the clk-mov curves. The p values were very high in two configurations and much lower (0.137 <p < 0.236) in the others. It is worth noting, however, that in all the latter cases, the effect of coupling, even if not significant, was opposite to that expected, i.e. the lagging segment was phase-delayed or the leading segment was phase-advanced.