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Table 1 Patient characteristics, cognitive assessment and relationship with CVR

From: Magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity and its relationship to cognition: a systematic review

Study Sample (age, mean ± SD) Cognitive assessment (score ± SD) CVR in participants CVR and cognition
Calviere et al. [34] 10 MMD (40.4, 8 female), 6 with DCS Executive function
 TMT B
 Letter and category fluency
 Stroop interference
 Brixton test
 WISC-C
 WISC-P
Attention and processing speed
 TMT A
 Coloured dots and words Stroop
CVR < DCS than no DCS Frontal CVR reduced in cognitively impaired patients, temporoparietal CVR was not different between DCS and no DCS
Cantin et al. [13] 7 MCI (64.1 ± 9.0, 2 female)
9 AD (71.1 ± 6.7, 5 female)
11 HC (65.4 ± 9.3, 6 female)
MMSE
 MCI 27.4 ± 1.8
 AD 21.7 ± 2.2
 HC 29.5 ± 0.5
CDR
HC > MCI = AD CVR correlated with MMSE score in all regions examined
Chung et al. [32] 35 T2DM (65.1 ± 8.0)
30 HC (67.1 ± 10.4)
33 female whole sample
2-year follow-up: 40ppts, 19 T2DM
MMSE (not analysed with CVR)
HVLT-R (verbal learning and memory function)
ROCF (visual–spatial ability and visual memory function)
TMT A & B (executive function)
VF (executive function)
IADL scale
Composite learning and memory T score (average of HVLT-R and ROCF)
Composite executive function (average of VF and TMT)
T2DM Baseline: 47.5 ± 8.3
2-year follow up: 44.6 ± 10.5
HC baseline: 52.1 ± 7.6
2-year follow up: 56.5 ± 9.9
No significant CVR differences between T2DM and HC at baseline or 2-year follow up Controls: no significant association between CVR and executive function
Decreased CVR associated with decline in executive function in T2DM
Regional CVR associated with executive function in frontal and parietal lobes in T2DM
Gauthier et al. [33] 31 younger (24 ± 3, 10 female)
54 older (63 ± 5, 37 female)
MMSE (values not reported)
Modified Stroop task (executive function)
Frontal CVR lower in older group, but not significant Frontal BOLD CVR not associated with Stroop performance
Glodzik et al. [37] 7 MCI (73.4 ± 8.2, 10 female)
17 HC (69.8 ± 6.9, 32 female)
MMSE
 MCI 27.5 ± 2.4
 HC 29.2 ± 1.0
Brief Cognitive Rating Scale
GDS
HC > MCI CVR not related to MMSE, age, or regional brain volumes, in either the entire sample or in HC and MCI subgroups
Metzger et al. [36] 33 MS patients, 12 CI (41 ± 6.27, 7 female), 21 CN (39 ± 5.9114 female)
22 HC (41 ± 6.48, 13 female)
BCcogSEP (short term memory, visual memory, digit spans, working memory, processing speed, go-no-go test, executive function) Overall MS = HC
CI < CN
CVR lower in cognitively impaired patients in whole brain and all regions examined
Richiardi et al. [31] 15 MCI (71 ± 10, 9 female)
20 AD (76 ± 7, 10 female)
28 HC (73 ± 7, 18 female)
MMSE
 MCI 28 ± 2
 AD 25 ± 3
 HC 29 ± 1
AD and MCI slower CVR velocity CVR correlated with MMSE in 10 regions of the DMN
Tchistiakova et al. [10] 18 HTN + T2DM (71.8 ± 5.6, 7 female)
22 HTN only (73.4 ± 6.2), 12 female)
TMT A (processing speed)
CVLT (memory)
WCST (executive function)
Compared to HTN, HTN + T2DM had decreased CVR in frontal and parietal areas No significant associations between CVR and cognitive function
Thomas et al. [35] 44 MCI (64 ± 6.6, 26 female)
28 HC (65.6 ± 6.8, 15 female)
MMSE
 MCI 28.9 ± 1.4
 HC 29 ± 1.0
LM (immediate and delayed recall)
TMT A & B (executive function)
CVLT (memory)
MCI = HC No significant differences in whole brain grey matter CVR between MCI and HC
Yezhuvath et al. [30] 12 AD (68.7 ± 8.4, 10 female)
13 HC (70.5 ± 8.3, 4 female)
MMSE
 AD 22.8 ± 4.1
 HC 29.6 ± 0.7
CERAD battery
CDR
BNT (language ability)
HC > AD
Compared with controls, AD patients had reduced CVR in rostral brain
CVR in frontal lobe and insula (the primary CVR deficit regions) not related to global cognitive function
Significant correlation between CVR and Boston Naming Test score in the frontal and insula regions in AD patients
  1. Mean age and SD in brackets
  2. MMD moyamoya disease, DCS, dysexecutive cognitive syndrome, CI cognitive impairment, CN cognitively normal, HC healthy controls, AD Alzheimer’s disease, MCI mild cognitive impairment, HTN hypertension, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating, BCcogSEP French language test to evaluate cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis, IADL instrumental activities of daily living, ROCF Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, HVLT-R Hopkins Verbal Learning Test–Revised, GDS Global Deterioration Scale, LM logical memory, TMT A & B Trail Making Test Parts A and B; VF verbal fluency, CVLT California Verbal Learning Test, WCST Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (-C: categories; -P: perseverations), CERAD Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease, BNT Boston Naming Test