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Fig. 2 | BMC Neuroscience

Fig. 2

From: PA28αβ overexpression enhances learning and memory of female mice without inducing 20S proteasome activity

Fig. 2

PA28αOE mice exhibit reduced depressive-like behavior. a Order of exposure to behavioral and physiological analysis. Female PA28αOE and WT F2 hybrid litter mates at the age of 6–7 months were subjected to the following analysis: activity box (ACT), forced swim test (FST), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), passive avoidance test using the shuttle box system (PAT), zeromaze anxiety test (ZM), and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA); nPA28αOE = 6 and nWT = 9–10 (one WT mouse was injured during PAT and needed to be removed, thus nWT = 10 until PAT and nWT = 9 thereafter). b Forced swim test is considered a measurement of depressive-like behavior, in which low active time and passivity are signs of depression. PA28αOE female mice demonstrate increased active time (P = 0.0476; Student’s t test) and distance travelled (P = 0.0718) compared to WT littermates. Values are mean ± SEM. c Analysis of PA28αOE and WT mice using the zeromaze system to study anxiety-related behavior. A mouse is placed at the entrance of a closed quadrant and monitored for 5 min as regards of their activity, latency to enter open arm and time spent in open and closed arm. Graphs show activity in closed area and time spent in open area for both days, which are considered the most relevant measures of anxiety-like behavior. Values are mean ± SEM; nPA28αOE = 6 and nWT = 10

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