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Table 3 Psychiatric symptoms in antibody positive cases (+) and controls (−)

From: The significance of anti-neuronal antibodies for acute psychiatric disorders: a retrospective case–controlled study

Clinical characteristic NMDAR pa CASPR2 pa GAD65  
+ n = 21 − n = 42 + n = 14 − n = 28 + n = 9 − n = 18 pa
Hallucinations, n (%) 3 (14.3) 1 (2.4) 0.10 0 (0) 3 (10.7) 0.54    
Delusions, n (%) 2 (9.5) 7 (16.7) 0.71 2 (14.3) 3 (10.7) 1.00    
Lowered moodb, n (%) 10 (55.6) 16 (39.0) 0.24i 8 (61.5) 15 (60.0) 0.93i 5 (55.6) 11 (64.7) 0.69
Elevated moodc, n (%) 2 (11.1) 7 (17.1) 0.71       
Irritabilityd, n (%) 3 (15.0) 6 (14.3) 1.00 3 (23.1) 5 (18.5) 1.00 1 (12.5) 5 (27.8) 0.63
Disorientatione, n (%) 1 (5.0) 7 (16.7) 0.26 4 (30.8) 4 (15.4) 0.40 0 (0) 2 (11.1) 1.00
Disinhibition (median (range)) 1 (1–6) 1 (1–6) 0.57j       
Agitation (median (range))f 8 (5–31) 8 (5–32) 0.62j 7 (5–27) 10 (5–21) 0.34j 10 (5–17) 8 (5–23) 0.98j
Symptom fluctuation (median (range))g 2 (1–7) 3 (1–8) 0.89j       
Total sleep time (min) (mean (SD))h 458 (115) 476 (112) 0.66k 438 (109) 442 (114) 0.93k    
Time awake after sleep onset (min) (mean (SD))h 39 (23) 37 (35) 0.90k 47 (18) 40 (24) 0.51k    
  1. CASPR2 contactin-associated protein 2, GAD65 glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, NMDAR N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, SD standard deviation
  2. aFisher’s exact test if not stated otherwise. Data missing on bNMDAR (3 cases, 1 control), CASPR2 (1 case, 3 controls), GAD65 (1 control); cNMDAR (3 cases, 1 control); dNMDAR (1 case), CASPR2 (1 case, 1 control), GAD65 (1 case); eNMDAR (1 case), CASPR2 (1 case, 2 controls), GAD65 (1 case); fCASPR2 (1 case, 1 control); gNMDAR (3 cases, 7 controls); hNMDAR (10 cases, 16 controls), CASPR2 (6 cases, 14 controls); iChi square; jMann Whitney U test; kT-test